Biochemicals & reagents
1) Janion and Glickman (1980), N4-hydroxycytidine: a mutagen specific for AT to GC transitions; Mutat. Res., 72 43 2) Stuyver et al. (2003), Ribonucleotide analogue that blocks replication of bovine viral diarrhea and hepatitis C viruses in culture; Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 47 244 3) Costantini et al. (2012), Antiviral activity of nucleoside analogues against norovirus; Antivir. Ther., 17 981 4) Reynard et al. (2015), Identification of a New Ribonucleoside Inhibitor of Ebola Virus Replication; Viruses, 7 6233 5) Ehteshami et al. (2017), Characterization of -D-N4-Hydroxycytidine as a Novel Inhibitor of Chikungunya Virus; Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 61 e02395-16 6) Yoon et al. (2018), Orally efficacious broad-spectrum ribonucleoside analog inhibitor of influenza and respiratory syncytial viruses; Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 62 e00766-18 7) Barnard et al. (2004), Inhibition of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARSCoV) by calpain inhibitors and beta-D-N4-hydroxycytidine; Antivir. Chem. Chemother., 15 15 8) Pyrc et al. (2006), Inhibition of human coronavirus NL63 infection at early stages of the replication cycle; Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 50 2000 9) Toots et al. (2019), Characterization of orally efficacious influenza drug with high resistance barrier in ferrets and human airway epithelia; Sci. Transl. Med., 11 eaax5866
N4-Hydroxycytidine was originally identified as a mutagen effecting AT to GC base-pair transitions (1) which has also been found to have antiviral properties against a broad range of viruses including hepatitis C2, norovirus (3), Ebola virus (4), Chikungunya virus (5), influenza and respiratory syncytial viruses (6) and importantly, to coronaviruses (7,8). This compound is the active molecule in the antiviral pro-drug clinical candidate EIDD-2801 (9).