life science research products, biological research products, biotechnology
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Using antibodies or nucleic acid probes, researchers are employing fluorescent or chromogenic
development to visualize or quantitate their targets (protein, DNA/RNA, etc.).
Often, a target is not present in great abundance, or the primary antibody is of poor quality, resulting in faint signal and/or high background.  When this happens, it becomes necessary to amplify the signal so that it can be detected clearly, without high background.
Tyramide Signal Amplification [the abbreviation "TSA" is trademarked by PerkinElmer], or Catalyzed Reporter Deposition (CARD), is a simple method of easy signal amplification for greatly increasing sensitivity and resolution.

  • Reagent for use in catalyzed reporter deposition (CARD) signal amplification protocols in a variety of
    immunoassays in which, horseradish peroxidase catalyzed deposition of biotinyl tyramide is detected with labeled streptavidin 1
  • Widely used for signal amplification in fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) protocols 2
  • May be used for signal amplification in a sandwich ELISA for quantification of α-tubulin isotypes 3
  • Reagent for "self-biotinylation" of DNA G-quadruplexes 4
  • May be used with APEX-mediated biotin labeling to identify protein-protein interactions 5

1) Bobrow et al. (1989), Catalyzed reporter deposition, a novel method of signal amplification. Application to immunoassays; J. Immunol. Methods, 125, 279
2) Evans et al. (2003), Optimization of biotinyl-tyramide-based in situ hybridization for sensitive background-free applications in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens; BMC. Clin. Pathol., 3, 2
3) Draerova et al. (2013), Quantification of a-tubulin by sandwich ELISA with signal amplification through niotinyl-tyramide or immune-PCR; J. Immunol. Methods, 395, 63
4) Einarson and Sen (2017), Self-biotinylation of DNA G-quadruplexes via intrinsic peroxidase activity; Nucleic Acids Res., 45, 9813
5) Hwang and Espenshade (2016), Proximity-dependent biotinlabelling in yeast using the engineered ascorbate peroxidase APEX2; Biochem. J., 473, 2463


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